Secondary Metallurgy


Ladle Furnace
Ladle Furnace

Ladle furnaces are increasingly being installed in basic oxygen plants as well as in electric arc furnace melt shops. INTECO offers solutions for every ladle furnace application. Due to its tailor made design INTECO’s ladle furnaces will fit even the tightest space requirements and fulfill both the requirements of special steel plants with long and intensive metallurgical treatments as well as high performance, short time treatment cycles in BOF steel plants. In any case special attention is paid to easy and low maintenance requirements in order to guarantee a long and trouble free operation.


  • Single or twin stand (with swivelling portal)
  • Heat sizes from 6 to 300 t
  • Different roof designs available  (pipe-to-pipe, flat inner surface)
  • Standard or hanging portal system
  • Ladle transfer car with optional tilting stool and weighing device
  • Designed with gas or electromagnetic stirring system
  • For steel plants, foundries and ferroalloys plants

 USP‘s of INTECO Design

  • Furnace roof with flat inner surface (steel plates or copper plated)
  • Fast exchangeable guide blocks
  • Automatic gas coupling system
  • INTECO atec ISEC electrode control
  • Easy access and maintenance
  • All auxiliary equipment out of one hand
VD/VOD Units

The VD system is one of the widest used degassing systems in commercial use. In that system a ladle is placed in a vacuum tank and sealed with a vacuum cover for an operation under vacuum conditions. The ladle has to be equipped with a porous plug for inert gas stirring. Vacuum will be created by the steam ejector- or dry mechanical vacuum pumps. During the vacuum treatment carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen can be reduced in various steps depending on the melt conditions. Additionally, the VD system can be equipped with vacuum alloy hoppers so that an analysis correction and adjustment can be executed during vacuum treatment. Advantages of this system include good homogenization as well as higher alloys yields.

For the VOD treatment, one can take advantage of the fact that, under vacuum, decarburization with oxygen occurs before oxidation of chromium thus attaining very low carbon contents with a slight loss of chromium. For that operation an oxygen blowing lance is installed on top of the vacuum cover.

Most of production programs require a combination of VD and VOD operation. For that purpose the mechanical equipment has been designed for both operations.


Altogether, the VD-VOD - treatment offers the following process advantages:

  • increase of productivity of the furnace
  • utilization of cheaper materials of high carbon content (charge chrome)
  • decrease of production costs
  • increase of quality
  • possibility of production of ELC qualities with a minimum of chromium loss
  • attaining of tight analysis tolerances
  • better yield of chromium


  • Single or twin operation stand
  • Heat sizes up to 350 t
  • Steam ejector vacuum pumps
  • Dry mechanical vacuum pumps
  • Alloying under vacuum conditions

 USP‘s of INTECO Design

  • Complete in house design
  • VOD-ladle cover with flat inner surface (steel plates or copper plated)
  • Automatic gas coupling system (TBR)
  • Wire feeding machines
  • All auxiliary equipment out of one hand



RH Vacuum Degassing Unit

Since the introduction of RH (Ruhrstahl Heraeus) degassing technology in the late 50’s, the RH-degassing process became an important operation in modern steel plants. Over the years the RH-process was continuously developed to satisfy the steel producers demand. In the early days of RH-degassing the target was to achieve a low hydrogen level in the liquid steel.

Nowadays the RH-degasser is mainly used for the production of low and ultra-low carbon steel grades as well as hydrogen removal. Due to its continuously developed and improved technology, vessel heating, chemical heating using oxygen under vacuum, forced decarburization as well as removal of vessel skull can be employed in combination with a TOP-blowing oxygen lance.

The RH-degassing process has proven its eminent suitability for operations requiring short tap-to-tap times in more than 250 units worldwide with heat sizes of up to 400 tons.

The particular features of the RH recirculation degassing process include:

  • Favorable degassing conditions due to lift-gas kinetic
  • A high analysis hitting rate
  • Lower temperature losses
  • Continuous process sequence during vacuum treatment and alloy addition
  • No additional freeboard required
  • Reproducible metallurgical results

which has led to the following results:

  • Short treatment time
  • Improved economy
  • Vacuum degassing
  • Vacuum deoxidation
  • Decarburization to very low levels
  • Alloy addition of e.g. large amounts of Silicon for the production of electrical sheets
  • Homogenization of the melt
  • Alloy trimming


  • Single or twin operation stand
  • RH-vessel fast exchange system
  • Steam ejector vacuum pumps
  • Dry mechanical vacuum pumps

  USP‘s of INTECO Design

  • Complete in house design
  • Variable ladle / vessel lifting systems
  • TOP-burner & O2-blowing lance system
  • Variable dust separating / cooling system